Is My Machine OK?

A Field Guide to Assessing Process Machinery

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Is My Machine OK?

Is My Machine OK?

A Field Guide to Assessing Process Machinery

Robert Perez and Andre Conkey


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Handy Field Guide Offers Practical Answers

Are you responsible for your plant's industrial machines? Is My Machine OK? is a compact and handy reference on the potential risks of machine failure and safe machinery operation. Authors Robert Perez and Andre Conkey, aided by several contributors, provide 225 pages in this hardcover guide. It foms a solid basis for reliable and safe machine operations. The authors employ their extensive background to combine the most commonly used assessment tools in a single source.

 

Developed specifically to be taken into the field by machine operators, plant supervisors and maintenance technicians, the guide will also help reliability professionals make informed decisions about factory and process equipment.

 

This book is made up of four sections subdivided into 12 chapters and two appendices:

  • Evaluating Process Machines, which contains basic instruction and practical advice on evaluating the condition of machines
  • Equipment Specific Assessments, which covers the evaluation of centrifugal pumps, steam turbines, electric motors, and piping
  • General Assessment Guidelines, which contains field assessment methods, limits, and advice commonly employed to evaluate process machinery
  • Improvement Ideas. Throughout the book there are many relevant examples that will help you better understand the proper application of the various assessment methodologies presented.  

Is My Machine Ok?

A Field Guide to Assessing Process Machinery

by Robert Perez and Andre Conkey

 

Robert X Perez has more than 30 years of rotating equipment experience in the petrochemical industry and holds a BSME from Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas; an MSME degree from the University of Texas, Austin, and is a licensed P.E. in the state of Texas. He is a co-founder of PumpCalcs.com, a web-based site for pump-related calculations, and is the author of Operator's Guide to Centrifugal Pumps.

 

Andrew P. Conkey is an assistant professor of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University at Qatar. He has been a member of the Vibration Institute for over 15 years and has conducted research on the application of fiber optic interferometers for machinery rresponse measurements. He earned a BSME degree from Texas A&I University, and MSME and Ph.D. degrees from Texas A&M.

 

Contributors


Bill Stark, P.E., Principal, Bath Engineering

Mr. Stark is a licensed Professional Engineer in Texas, with over 15 years of project engineering and management in petrochemical plant design and construction. He earned degrees in Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering from the University of Missouri at Columbia and an MBA from Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi.


Julien Le Bleu, Jr., Principal Rotating Equipment Engineer, Retired


Mr. Le Bleu has more than 35 years of experience with critical industrial machinery, including 25 years as the Principal Rotating Equipment Engineer for Lyondell Chemicals in Lake Charles, Louisiana. He earned a B.S. degree from the University of Florida. Mr. Le Bleu is currently teaching machinery best practices to operators and maintenance personnel.


John W. Davis, President and Founder of WFM Associates


Mr. Davis is an established author and recognized authority on Lean Manufacturing. With an extensive background in products ranging from air conditioning and fractional H.P. motors to jet engines, helicopters and elevators, Davis has a broad range of experience in manufacturing and has consulted with numerous leading firms including Brunswick Corporation, Crane Pumps, CertainTeed Corporation, Rowe Manufacturing, JTB Furniture, and Defiance Metal Products.

Is My Machine Ok?

A Field Guide to Assessing Process Machinery

by Robert Perez and Andre Conkey

Chapter 14 Basic Vibration Analysis Part I


Introduction by Robert Perez


Early in my career, I happily accepted the role of vibration analyst and began to read everything I could about the subject. I was intrigued by the field of vibration technology as a whole. I discovered that there were so many analysis techniques—such as spectral analysis, phase analysis, and modal analysis— I eventually convinced myself that with the right vibration equipment I could solve any problem.The realization of my shortcomings soon set in, after some humbling field jobs. There was one in particular where my recommended fix failed to solve a severe axial vibration issue on a 1500hp (1118 kW) electric motor. I now know that you rarely see “textbook” vibration problems in the field. I discovered that you can’t just go to a vibration analysis table to determine what the cause of the problem is. My illusion of vibration analysis as being a perfect science was eventually tempered by the recognition that the interpretation of vibration data is actually part science, part art, and a healthy portion of determination and persistence.

 

Although this is a rather dubious introduction to this section, it illustrates that simple analysis, guidelines, and tables like the ones presented here are never complete enough to address the maladies and conditions for all machine types. I hope you will use this section as a starting point for your analysis and that it helps you hone in on the real problem at hand. Remember that every successful analysis should start with detailed knowledge of the machine at hand and in-depth discussions with its owners and designers.

 

Common Machinery Problems Associated with Vibration


Machine vibration maladies can be put into four categories. Understanding the primary possibilities for a vibration can help narrow down an area to investigate or possible solution. The four categories of vibration problems are imbalance, misalignment, resonance, and others.


Figure 14.1 displays a typical breakdown of the distribution of these problems. Each of these areas will be further discussed in terms of sources, appearance in vibration analysis, and areas to be cautious.

 

Common Machinery Vibration Problems

Figure 14.1 Distribution of Machine Maladies(1)

Is My Machine Ok?

A Field Guide to Assessing Process Machinery

by Robert Perez and Andre Conkey


Information from the Back Cover

 

This unique book provides plant supervisors, maintenance personnel, and reliability professionals with a handy guide for assessing the potential risk of failure of industrial process machines. It also provides a solid basis for reliable and safe machinery operation and was developed to be taken into the field so that informed decisions can be made “on the spot”.

 

This is the first book to offer machinery assessment advice together with established guidelines for the most commonly-used machinery condition parameters, such as vibration, pulsations, temperature limits, and lubrication. Until now, machinery users had to identify, purchase, and maintain an extensive library of machinery books and standards in order to assemble a body of sound evaluation practices.  This persuaded the authors that there was a need for a single, compact volume combining assessment advice, the most commonly used assessment tools, and helpful references.   

 

This book is made up of four sections:

 

1) Evaluating Process Machines, which contains basic instruction and practical advice on evaluating the condition of machines

 

2) Equipment Specific Assessments, which covers the evaluation of centrifugal pumps, steam turbines, electric motors, and piping:

 

3) General Assessment Guidelines, which contains field assessment methods, limits, and advice commonly employed to evaluate process machinery

 

4) Improvement Ideas. Throughout the book there are many relevant examples that will help you better understand the proper application of the various assessment methodologies presented.  

Is My Machine Ok?

A Field Guide to Assessing Process Machinery

by Robert Perez and Andre Conkey

  • Introduction
  • Machinery Assessment Steps
  • Data Collection Tips
  • Vibration Severity Guidelines
  • Basic Vibration Analysis Part I & Part II
  • Allowable Pulsation Levels
  • Dynamics
  • Machinery Rules of Thumb
  • Temperature Limits-Bearings
  • Compressors
  • Piping Vibration and Strain-Lubrication
  • AC Electric Motors
  • Appendix A-Useful conversions and equations
  • Appendix B-Glossary of Conditions Monitoring Terms